EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. 16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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This definition follows the one I presented inwhich was later expanded at Ludology.

In the late 90s, Espen Aarseth published Cybertext: And even less so when the Internet and new technology has made possible the transmedia circulation of individual and collective imaginations. For the author, Onimusha poses a possible world organized by a multitude of labyrinths and populated by different characters, spaces and properties. A final option, not represented in the graphic, would be non-possible worlds: As a result, he links the idea of mimesis to copying reality with the intention to deceive: User may accelerate the speed of the fall.

For example, we shall return to the case of the popular saga, Matrix. Moreover, it is completely irrelevant. E, although in the same category, lacks interactive capacity and is limited to a simple statistical result.

The proto-democratic world of flourishing Athens was overtly contrary and opposed to the autocratic and strict Spartan world, while the world of science defended by Galileo could not coexist with the Theocentric framework of the hegemonic Renaissance Catholic Church.

The first argument, structured in four main points, regards games and narratives as different things because they have different artficio pp.

In respect to the concept of Ludology, Frasca specifies his scope of application by contrasting two popular definitions of the discipline: This interpretation, within a possibilist framework that emphasizes reality and, at artificiio same time, the non-existence of fictional objects, was proposed by Alexius Meinong and thus is given the name Meinongianism.

Recently, Marie-Laure Ryan has emphasized the paradoxical and convenient alliance between certain ludologists and classical narratologists in which a narrative based on the act of speech by the narrator is praised and thereby, the mimetic possibilities of film or drama are excluded.

From these two principles, God conceives of infinite possible worlds and choses one of them as the best possible. In the same way, fictional laws that govern the world of Star Wars allow coherent fantastical composability that is contrary to referential logic — ewoks, lightsabers or the power of the Force — but still is determinate: If —P were true, we would then have, on one side, a contradiction that P and —P are true at the same time — John is and is not a physician — and incompleteness — in world W there is the same physician and non-physician John.


This pragmatic situation in preconfiguration and reconfiguration thus implies that the work is written as fiction and read as fiction. However, before the start of the game, the player already knows the spaces or characters: In any case, nowadays it seems that fiction not only has survived all these single world interpretations but also its discursive potential has returned in full.

Within Ludology, the consideration of ludologist has been attributed to Aarseth — who, incidentally, never used such a term in any of his works — and his closest followers — Eskelinen, Juul and Frasca himself. Thus, an approach that considers the video game as a possible world of ludic fiction — a ludofictional world — must include at least three key aspects: Thus, observational replication may be limited to the replication of one action or consist of another essential element other than the third mimetic delimitation: Photography and film go against the flight simulator.

This position would explain, for example, the passage of Troy in the Trojan legend depicted by The Iliad or how it is possible that the ancient religious myths once considered real are today, in most cases, fictional stories.

Así la vida desaparece transformándose en nada. La – Sistemas de representación de la realidad

Therefore, it falls into a literal comparison between narration and fiction. However, it has become very difficult, according to Frasca, to clearly determine who the narrativists are since they have never been specified.

Second, and in terms of the possible ambiguity of a fictional framework, the reference of a world allows the remarking of boundaries between that which belongs to that set and that which remains outside of it. From this concept of story as a simulated act of storytelling, Lewis refines his implicit operator, from so-called Analysis 0 to Analysis 2.

Although from the basis of composability all fictional worlds should be coherent, postmodernity and contemporary textual practices are demonstrating that we can coexist with worlds that surpass the unique and authenticated story. The phases proposed by Kucklich are the first approach towards understanding video games as possible worlds, even if a practical application of the proposed typology was never suggested.

dr The exception occurs when the cultural construction must correct the encyclopedic knowledge to adjust the possible world: Frasca upholds that the new discipline never has rejected Narratology point-blank, even though it has considered it less suitable than Ludology for the study of video games.

If for Russell, fiction consists of empty terms without reference and, thus, without truth propositions, for Frege the fictional must be understood by the distinction between reference Bedeutung and sense Sinn: Thus, the pragmatist understands that the difference between an act of fiction and a real act does not lie in the intrinsic properties of the text, but rather the cultural context in which the creator and the receiver are located.


On May 23, — almost 25 years later — the prestigious Princess of Asturias Award in the Communications and Humanities category went to Shigeru Miyamoto, arguably the most famous video game designer in history.

However, the hegemony of the argument soon declined upon the confirmation that, in reality, much of the ideological persuasion did not consist of the mere fictionalization of reality, but rather the intensive use of rhetoric focused on manipulation and deception: Ludic pretense is not serious in such a sense, i.

From a philosophical perspective of modal logic both statements 4 and 5 are false for one reason: In the same year, Janet Murray published her famous Hamlet on the Holodeck by using the work of Brenda Laurel as a reference in which she analyzes the digital environment — mainly, software design — as a space, a medium of creating virtual theater works whose main basis consists of the Aristotelian structure.

In this way, the formation of the simulated world responds to a mimetic respect, more or less strict, of the original elements: The anthropologist investigated the origin of this legend by talking with the people in the village and discovered, to his surprise, that the events described occurred just 40 years ago and the bride was still alive.

viktor shklovski el arte como artificio pdf writer

Fri Sep 25, 8: The preconfiguration phase Mimesis I in the fictional work responds to both the pragmatic framework of the creation and the extensional semantics within a specific cultural context. But, do board games truly tell a story inspired by the saga?

Thus, mimesis, far from a mere relation of similarity, becomes a transition of a new fictional reality Mimesis II from a creative concept Mimesis I to a reconfiguration of the work during reception Mimesis III. An example of this is the movie Run Lola Run Tykwer, in which the protagonist lives the same experience three times: All images appearing in this work are property of the respective copyright owners, and are not released into the Creative Commons.

Finally, C, D and G are defined as interactive and thus belong to the dimension of game process.