Treatise on Instrumentation (Dover Books on Music) [Hector Berlioz, Richard Strauss] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The most influential. Includes full-score musical examples from works by Berlioz, Mozart, Beethoven, Wagner, and others. Music Books | Music History and Theory – Books on Music; /; Treatise on Instrumentation By: Hector Berlioz, Richard Strauss. Book Source: Digital Library of India Item : Hector ioned.

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Mozart seems to have been the first to use them for accompaniments of a sombre character such as that of the trio of masks in Don Giovanni. It can express all manner of vigorous feelings, proud and grand, and the majority of tragic accents. Formerly opera orchestras were always made up of string instruments in numerical proportion to the mass of the other instruments; but for some years now things have changed.

No other available instrument could produce this kind of harmonious flutter which the piano has no difficulty in rendering, and which the sylph-like character of the piece requires.

The notes of the bottom range have a rather poor timbre and the instrument must not be used below the low A. Mutes are small ttreatise made of wood which are placed on the bridge of stringed unstrumentation to reduce their sonority, and which give them at the same time a sad, mysterious and gentle character; this can be used to good effect in every kind of music.

Its tone quality is so distinctive that it is not necessary in an orchestra to have exactly the same number of violas as of second violins. Gluck is the only master who seems to me to have understood how to make excellent use of these pale tones. Bells have been introduced into orchestral writing to produce effects that are dramatic rather than musical. The result is not only that the effect misfires, but that there is a jarring discrepancy between the stage and the orchestra, and between the melody and its instrumentation.

It has a stormy and violent character when played fortissimo on the middle range of the A and E strings.

This effect was unknown to Mozart, Weberand Beethoven. Hence it has not as yet been possible for them to reach the point of the other branches of the art of music.

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I help professional players play freely. It was first published in after being serialised in many parts prior to this date and had a chapter added by Berlioz on conducting in The player does this by bringing the cymbals close to his chest immediately after striking them.

In his score the composer must therefore indicate the layout that he thinks is appropriate. Violins are faithful, intelligent, active and tireless servants. The two lower strings, the C and G strings, have a smooth and deep sound which is admirably suited in such cases, but their low register means that they can only be given a bass line that is more or less melodic, while the true singing parts must be reserved for the higher strings.

The true reason is that it had not occurred to them to instrumentstion use of this special timbre. Sticks with a wooden head covered with leather are less harsh; their sound is less brilliant though still very dry. Virtuoso players often use them in cadenzas and in instrjmentation fantasias, variations and concertos.


There is a common prejudice that large orchestras are noisy. The minimum needed would be fifteen first violins, fourteen seconds, ten violas and twelve cellos, but they should not all be used together in pieces where the accompaniment needs to be very soft. As for determining how the organ should be used on its own when considered as a self-contained orchestra, this is not the place to do this.

Berlioz Treatise on orchestration

It then sinks back gradually to the lament and murmured grief of a resigned soul… What a poet! The violins in particular can express heector vast range of nuances that seem at first sight incompatible. The texts, photos, images and musical scores on all pages of this site are covered by UK Law and International Law. Views Read Edit View history. The upper register has a somewhat piercing character which should only be used in an orchestral fortissimo or in extrovert runs in a brilliant solo passage some of the high notes can brlioz be sustained piano when the tone production has been carefully prepared.

Nowadays violas are often divided into first and second. When stopped sounds are not used for a specific effect then at least those which have a poor sonority and are too different from the other sounds of the horn should be avoided.

Comparison may also be made with the Report written by Berlioz on the musical instruments exhibited in at the Great Exhibition in London, and available on this site both in the original French and in an English translation. The extreme delicacy of the harmonics is enhanced in this passage by the use of mutes; with the sound thus reduced gector notes come from the highest regions of the musical scale, which could hardly be reached by the use of normal violin sounds.

Treatise on Instrumentation – Wikipedia

But if the tiers are erected in a special hall or at one end of a church, and if, as often is the case, the end of this building is constructed of thick materials and causes the sound of the instruments close to it to reverberate with excessive force and harshness, then the effectiveness of the reflectors and the resulting reverberation can easily be reduced. Click here to receive the Viola Calendar, with daily micro viola news and special offers!

The timbre of the middle and upper ranges does not have a strongly defined expressive character. This was reaction taken to exaggeration. In his symphonies in B flat and C minor Beethoven made wonderful use of the timpani pianissimo; these superb passages lose a great deal if played with sticks without sponge heads, even though the composer did not specify anything to that effect in his scores.

In some cases they would soften their brilliance, in others they would give warmth to the impetus of the music, by means of the tremolo which can lend a musical quality even to drum rolls by blending with them. It should however be mentioned that M.


Grand traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes, Op.10 (Berlioz, Hector)

Symphonie Fantastique1st movement, bar and following; 3rd movement, bar 3 and following; overture to King Learbar 38 and following, bar and following; overture to Benvenuto Treaitsebar and following; Romeo and Juliet2nd movement, bar 81 and following; overture Le Corsairebar and following].

The majority of orchestras nowadays still only have one pair of timpani, the largest of which is reserved for the lower note. The oboe would have sounded too childlike and its voice would not have seemed pure enough.

As for grouping them together, whether in small or large ensembles, and the art hfctor combining hectorr blending them so that the sound of some is modified by others, or in order to draw from the ensemble a special sound that none of them could produce in isolation or when combined with instruments of the same family — for that the only viable approach is to draw attention to the results obtained traetise the masters and indicate the methods they used.

When the cellos are playing a melody, it can sometimes be very effective to double them in unison with violas. This is the case with the stopped notes and the ehctor sound of the three horns in E flat in the scherzo of the Eroicaand with the low F sharp of the second horn in D in the scherzo of the Symphony in A. An orchestra with a thousand wind instruments, and a chorus of hfctor thousand voices, if placed in an open plain will not have one twentieth of the musical effectiveness of an ordinary orchestra of eighty musicians and a chorus of a hundred voices carefully arranged in the hall of the Conservatoire.

This produces a rather prolonged metallic shimmer, sinister in quality though without the formidable power of a stroke on the tam-tam. It is rather like a bull escaped from its stable and frolicking in a salon. The feelings of absence, oblivion, and painful loneliness which arise in the minds of some listeners when they hear this forsaken melody would not have a quarter of their force if sung by any instrument other than the cor anglais.

The organ and the orchestra are both Kings, or rather one is Emperor and the other Pope; they have different missions, their interests are too vast and too divergent to be confused. No eBook available Amazon. Yet one may see in a host of otherwise fine scores the basses almost constantly doubled in unison with a single trombone.

It is quite certain that the special effects obtained by this new type of orchestra could not possibly be achieved with any other forces. Nothing has such voluptuous sadness as a mass of cellos playing in unison on the A string, and nothing is better suited to expressing tender and languorous melodies.